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FRANCE

Located in Western Europe, France is separated from the British Isles to the north west by the English Channel.  To the north east is Belgium and Luxembourg.  To the east is Germany, Switzerland and Italy.  To the south lies the Mediterranean Sea and to the southwest lies Spain.  To France's west is the Bay of Biscay.  Other countries bordering France are the micro nation states, Andorra and Monaco.

France is a key player on the world stage and a country at the political heart of Europe.  Although ultimately a victor in World Wars I and II, France paid a high price in both economic and human terms during the two world wars.   Indeed, France suffered extensive losses in its empire, wealth,  human capital, and rank as a dominant nation-state.

The years that followed saw protracted conflicts culminating in independence for Algeria and most other French colonies in Africa as well as decolonization in Southeast Asia.

In 1958, the mixed nature of the coalition government structure collapsed as a result of the tremendous opposing pressures generated by four years of war with Algeria, bringing General de Gaulle to power again, heading the government to prevent civil war. Marking the beginning of the Fifth Republic, General de Gaulle became prime minister in June 1958 and was elected president in December of that year. 

Since 1958, France  has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier more purely parliamentary administrations. 

France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and a major player on the global stage not only as a charter member of the United Nations and  membership in many of its specialized and regional agencies, but also with  a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.

France is a leader among European nations.  The country is a member of the European Union (EU), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). In recent years, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany has proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common exchange currency, the euro, in January 1999.  That being said, French voters rejected the proposed European Union constitution in a referendum in May 2005, although passage of the reformist Lisbon Treaty in 2009 brought an end to the bloc's uncertainty.

Today, France is regarded as a highly developed country. It is one of the largest economies in the world, and is the third largest in the European Union. The country's economic strength lies in its substantial agricultural resources, a large industrial base, and a highly skilled workforce.

 
Country Forecast
Major Cities
City Population
Paris 2,138,551
Marseille 794,811
Lyon 472,317
Key Data
Region : Europe
Population : 66,021,744
Area Total : 547,030 km2
Area Land : 545,630 km2
Coast Line : 1,400 km
Capital : Paris
Climate : Generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean.
Languages : French; various other languages are also spoken in France
Currency : 1 Euro = 100 cents
Holiday : Bastille Day is 14 July (1789), Liberation Day/V-E Day is 8 May
Average Daily TemperatureBoundaries
January : 3.50°C / 38.30°F
July : 18.70°C / 65.70°F
Annual Rainfall : 2089.1mm / 82.2"
   
 
Spain 623km
Belgium 620km
Switzerland 573km
Italy 488km
Germany 451km
Luxembourg 73km
Andorra 60km
Monaco 4km
Ethnic DivisionsReligions
Celtic
Teutonic
Slavic
Latin
Basque
Asian
North African
Caribbean
other
 
Roman Catholic 88%
Muslim 5%
Other 4%
Protestant 2%
Jewish 1%


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