Peru is located in Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean. The country is rich in mineral resources, including copper, silver, lead, zinc, oil and gold. Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas, whose empire was captured by the Spanish in 1533. After being ruled by Spain for nearly three centuries, Peru gained independence in 1821. The military has been prominent in Peruvian history. Coups have repeatedly interrupted civilian constitutional government. The most recent period of military rule (1968-80) began when General Juan Velasco Alvarado overthrew elected President Fernando Belaunde Terry. Elections in 1980 restored democratic leadership in Peru, but economic problems led to political instability and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto Fujimori's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, and Alejandro Toledo was elected president, Peru's first democratically-elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of former leader Alan Garcia Perez, who is committed to economic stability and has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance. As of 2011, following presidential elections, leftist Ollanta Humala succeeded Alan Garcia as president.